Vacuum Casting speed/pressure


Thank you for the quick response, yes I am referring to after the burnout cycle when you are about to pour molten metal in, sorry for the confusion


For metal casting into investment molds, I don’t think that it will help much to pull a vacuum on a mold, open it to air again, and then pour metal at ambient pressure. Some metal vacuum casting methods work by pouring the metal into the mold while both the metal and the mold are under vacuum, or where ambient pressure metal is sucked/forced into a mold under vacuum. This can help fill the mold better because there is no air in the way of the molten metal flowing into the small features and extremities. If your chamber is homemade, it seems unlikely that you already have a mechanism to use that vacuum to suck the metal directly into your mold. Unless you’ve got some kind of really cool suction tube that is quite impervious to your molten metal :slight_smile:

If your metal is hot enough to stay liquid in your mold for a few seconds after pouring (also depends on how hot your mold is), then pulling a vacuum after you pour the metal may help pull gas bubbles to the surface, which could either reduce the porosity of your finished metal part by removing the gas entirely, or, like with resin casting, increase the porosity by expanding otherwise tiny bubbles that can’t escape the liquid before it solidifies. That probably depends most on what metal you’re casting and how hard it is to avoid gas porosity when casting it, though.

What aspect of your process/results are you hoping to improve by adding a vacuum step?


I think you should pull the vacuum and then pour the metal. I am assuming the you are using flasks with a ring near the top which allows a seal between the top of the flask which is at atmospheric pressure and the bottom which is under vacuum. If you are not using these flasks, all bets are off.

Bill B


Correct, I’m only pulling vacuum on the bottom and sides of the flask. So the top is exposed. Here is a link to the flask I’m using: 3" x 4" Perforated Flask With…


You are doing it right.
You only want to pull gasses thru the investment and allow normal air pressure on the cup.
Generally, you hit the vacuum after you pour metal into the cup… if you vacuum before pouring, you are simply pulling cold air into the mold cavity, cooling the surface of the mold and more likely to get a cold shut off in some detailed or thin area.

Ideally the mold should be pretty hot when pouring. Fresh from the burnout if possible.

The vacuum not only helps pull any entrapped air out thru the investment… more importantly is pulls out the gasses that come out of the metal as it cools, reducing or eliminating porosity in the metal surface.


I hadn’t thought of the cold air being pulled Through the casting and cooling it down, that’s a good point.


In my experience, it takes too long to pull a vacuum on the flask bottom to do much good for a home system. The metal begins to solidify quickly when it meets the much cooler flask walls and then the vacuum assistance is compromised. If you are concerned about cold air, perhaps you could fashion a plate that covers the flask top and minimize air entry. I don’t think there is an issue anyway.
I instrumented a 3" x 5" flask with thermocouples at my last job and it takes a very long time to cool noticeably. Investment is a pretty good insulator. Your flasks will be smaller, but the effect will be smaller, but similar. Another thing this experiment showed was that there is a considerable temperature lag in the flask both going up and down. There is also a big gradient between the flask inside temperature and the outer wall area. The actual temperature indicated on a temperature readout was always way off if soak time was too short (hours in our case with a large flask). Soak time variation was the cause of many casting problems.
Having said all that, there are Youtube videos showing casters without the equipment we are used too just pouring the metal into a flask sitting on the ground and - apparently - getting good results. Go figure.


That depends on your pump. And if your investment is piping hot from burnout.

You don’t need to pull a full vacuum. In fact, you won’t read a full vacuum until the metal has totally filled the cavity. All yo need is a differential between the pressure in the cavity, and ambient pressure on the cup.

The pressure difference acts like an Injector to push the metal into the mold, even when the pressure difference is only a few pounds per sq inch.

And you should be using a pump large and fast enough to evacuate a chamber the size of your investment in a few seconds.


Another thing I struggle with is casting temperatures. My investment material says to finish the burnout at 1300f degrees. I’m casting with sterling silver and I read a lot of different opinions on what your investment temperature should be at when you pour. I would think hotter the better as long as your casting doesn’t breakdown and this website: says 1300f but I’ve heard as low as 800f.


generally- you want the metal to stay fluid as long as possible.
In bronze casting we fire ceramic shell molds to about 300 degrees above the pour temperature of the bronze.
In the time it takes us to pull the molds out of the kiln and set them, and then get the crucible out of the furnace- they cool considerably. The bronze crucible itself come out almost white hot, but by the time we get it over the molds it has cooled to yellow orange.

you have to consider the temperature differential…pulling a 2,000 degree crucible out of a furnace into a hot summer day of 100 degrees is a steeper gradient than dipping your hot cup of coffee into liquid nitrogen.

You want your mold to be almost as hot as the metal you pour into it… but not necessarily hotter.
The metal will transfer heat to the mold but in doing so it will lose heat… you don’t want that transfer of heat drop the metal temp low enough to cause it to thicken or to solidify.


Is there investment material out there that’s rated for 2000 degrees and still have high detail? I’m trying to make rings so detail is fairly important


We use ceramic shell for high temp castings, up to stainless temps.

We’ve poured bronze into investment with no issue- around 1900 by the time the bronze hits the cup- but we don’t burnout investment higher than 1400.


Sculptingman, you use the shell method of investing, but he is talking about flask casting. There is a huge difference. In shell casting, you pour the metal at very high mold temperatures. One reason for this is that usually - but there are exceptions - the shell method uses a gravity pour. Generally speaking, flask casting makes better parts if the metal is poured into a mold that is 200 deg or more lower than the high burnout temperature, 1350 deg in cases using gold, brass, etc. This has been my experience after many experiments and we have made many, many parts this way. This is counterintuitive, but the data and the results do not lie. You do not want your mold near the metal melting temperature. If you are using gypsum based investment as most do, at gold melting temperatures the investment has decomposed into a stinky, crumbling mess. Ask me how I know. Most people here use this type of investment.

When you take your shell out of the furnace, it is very hot and cools off seemingly quickly as you have stated. However, you are looking at the outside shell temperature not the inside. Investment makes a pretty good insulator. The surface area to volume ratio is much higher than flask casting. This makes the cooling of the shells much faster. Also, a flask still has a thick metal cylinder wrapped around it. I have mapped 3" x 5" flasks for temperature and there is often a several hundred degree gradient from inside to outside. It takes several hours soaking at peak temperature to reach equilibrium. The same effect happens when cooling down. After one minute, the inside of the flask has cooled less than 20 deg.

If you really want to at cast higher mold temperatures, use phosphate bonded investment, It is used for platinum, steel, etc. These metals melt at much higher temperatures. However, even these are burned out a lower temperatures, but can be taken higher. Most people’s burnout oven max out at 2,000 deg or so. I have taken flasks out of a furnace and standing square in front of a 200 deg furnace with flask grasping tongs is dangerous. You must be completely clothed in a fire resistant suit. I have been there. The elements in the furnace quickly burn out also. Not good if you are on a budget.

I say pull vacuum and pour as soon as the vacuum reaches its highest level. Hopefully, no more than 30 seconds.

Anyone really interested in flask casting should buy Murry Bovin’s book about casting . It is old school, but all the basics are there. This wheel has already been invented.



You’re right- I defer to your greater experience in flask investments.

We only occasionally poured investments- and they were straight out of the burnout furnace.
As I explained earlier- in the time it takes to pull them out and get the crucible over them, they drop in temperature anywhere between 200 to 400 degrees depending on the ambient temp and how fast we get tongs on the crucible.

But my experience is with much larger volume casting, 1/8" thick on average, but at least 25 lbs of metal at a time.


Hi I am newbee in casting, in fact i am still looking around in this forum and learning. may I know what vacuum casting machine ideal for small gold jewelery workshop? I know kayacast vacuum casting from ebay, does it good enough to cast gold jewelry with high details, such as ring with fine prongs?


Ive seen a lot of videos of those and similar styles being used and they seem to work fairly well. I made my own setup to save money so I can only really give you tips on how to build one.


Hi Jhajny,
Thank for your replay and your intention to help me built the machine, but i don’t think i have the skill, equipment, and time to built it. I prefer to buy one, and want to make sure i buy the one that can meet my needs.


I have the KayaCast, and have been using it with my Formlabs casting.

I’ve had it since maybe 2015, and it’s a great system. I like that it can take both solid and perforated flasks, so that flexibility is really nice. One drawback…when I bought mine, it came with a single perforated flask, and the necessary adapter for the drop-in chamber. I found other perforated flasks online, and just assumed that they would fit…THEY DID NOT.

I learned this when I had a large run burning out in the kiln. Fortunately, I had worked with a local metal shop that has a water jet cutter, and they were able to quickly cut a couple of steel plates with the right sized holes. If you decide to get a KayaCast and need those CAD files, I’m more than happy to share them. I used a fiberglas-reinforced baking mat to make the gasket. The metal adapter doesn’t have to even been precise…there is a little wiggle room, so even if it were cut with a regular cutting torch, it should work.

For me, it was the right price…a larger automatic system wasn’t in my budget because I only do single pieces or limited runs. On my larger runs, I think I’ve been able to cast 60 charms or so in one flask? I’m using Neutec sprues/bases with the perforated flasks. Just make sure that the flasks fit…check to see what larger perforated flask is included…that diameter is what you’ll want to stick to.

I took a class from Kate Wolf (wax carving goddess…her tools work GREAT on resin), and I asked her if she preferred a centrifugal setup or vacuum. She said vacuum. You’ll have to experiment to get the metal temperatures right, but it will depend more on your flask temperature when it comes out of the kiln and metal temperature if you’re doing fine work. My biggest issues have been what I believe to be incomplete ash burnout, but I’ve seen some folks using a vacuum on the flasks, returning them to the kiln so they can come back up to casting temperature. That residue can cause “crustiness” on the surface of your pieces. You’ll also want to add boric acid to your investment to strengthen it.

There are versions that have the vacuum table only, but the one I think you’re considering has the drop-in vacuum as well…I recommend that version.

What quantity will you be casting?


@katkramer thank you for your replay, it is very helpfull and very clear. It is good to know that kaya cast is good enough, because I might not find other than that in my country. Thanks for offering me th CAD, but i will try to find it around my county first.
I am not sure yet about my quantity, may be about 20 to 50 per month.
What kind of metal are working on? I am working with 18k gold
Have you figur out how to get rid the incomplete ash burnout?


Sorry for the delayed reply! I’ve been out of touch for awhile, dealing with family issues.

The KayaCast would be good for your quantity…but it depends on your budget. If you’re doing 18K gold, and have that volume, you might be better with a more automated system. But this is definitely a lesser-priced option that would work.

Incomplete ash burnout is still hit or miss with me. I was going to try one of the solutions with the aquarium pump to add oxygen. I also noticed that there is a system online that helps circulate air through the chamber…it might have been from Paragon? I know I referenced it in an earlier post on the forum.

Right now, I’m using compressed, canned air to gently blow into the cavity, or just blow into the cavity with my breath…then place it back into the kiln for the final twenty minutes. I’ve had better results with Castable v2 than Castable Wax, but I need to do a little more experimentation. I haven’t cast in awhile, and have been focusing more on creating an online ZBrush course. I need to get back to casting.

Did you ever get a casting setup?